Kotlin is a versatile and modern programming language that has gained popularity for its concise syntax, robust features, and seamless interoperability with Java. As its adoption in the software development industry, particularly in Android app development, continues to grow, proficiency in Kotlin has become increasingly valuable. In job interviews for positions involving Kotlin, candidates are often tested on their understanding of its core concepts, features, and practical applications.
What is Kotlin?
What are the advantages of Kotlin over Java?
Kotlin offers null safety, extension functions, more concise syntax, and functional programming features, improving upon Java’s verbosity and older design patterns.
What are data classes in Kotlin?
Data classes in Kotlin are concise and efficient ways to create classes that are primarily used to hold data, automatically providing equals(), hashCode(), and toString() functions.
Explain null safety in Kotlin.
Kotlin incorporates null safety at the language level, requiring explicit handling of null, which minimizes the risk of NullPointerException.
What are extension functions in Kotlin?
Extension functions allow adding new functions to existing classes without modifying their source code, enhancing code readability and maintainability.
How does Kotlin handle default values in functions?
Kotlin supports default arguments in functions, allowing the caller to omit some arguments, and reducing the need for overloaded functions.
What are coroutines in Kotlin?
Coroutines in Kotlin are a feature for managing background tasks efficiently and effortlessly, allowing for non-blocking and asynchronous programming.
What is the difference between value and var in Kotlin?
val (immutable reference) declares a read-only property or local variable, whereas var (mutable reference) declares a mutable property or local variable.
How is Kotlin interoperable with Java?
Kotlin is fully interoperable with Java, allowing seamless use of Kotlin code in Java and vice versa, leveraging existing Java libraries and frameworks.
What are higher-order functions in Kotlin?
Higher-order functions are functions that take functions as parameters or return a function, enabling powerful abstractions and operations on functions.
Explain the use of ‘lateinit’ in Kotlin.
The lateinit keyword in Kotlin is used to declare a non-null property that will be initialized after the object’s constructor has been called.
What are sealed classes in Kotlin?
Sealed classes in Kotlin are used to represent restricted class hierarchies, where a value can have one of the types from a limited set, known at compile-time.
What is a companion object in Kotlin?
A companion object in Kotlin is an object that is common to all instances of that class, akin to static methods and fields in Java.
How do you handle exceptions in Kotlin?
Exception handling in Kotlin is similar to Java, using try, catch, and finally blocks, but Kotlin does not have checked exceptions.
What is ‘by lazy’ in Kotlin?
The lazy construct in Kotlin is used for the lazy initialization of a property, ensuring it’s computed only when first accessed and then cached.
What are destructuring declarations in Kotlin?
Destructuring declarations in Kotlin provides a convenient way to unpack data from objects into distinct variables.
Explain Kotlin’s support for functional programming.
Kotlin supports functional programming with features like first-class functions, lambdas, higher-order functions, and immutability.
How does Kotlin handle platform types?
Kotlin handles platform types, originating from Java code, by treating them as nullable or non-nullable depending on the Java declaration, to ensure null safety.
What are inline functions in Kotlin?
Inline functions in Kotlin are functions that are expanded inline at the call site, which can reduce overhead when calling higher-order functions.
How do you create a singleton in Kotlin?
A singleton in Kotlin can be created using the object keyword, which ensures a single instance of the class.
What is the use of the ‘suspend’ keyword in Kotlin?
The suspend keyword in Kotlin is used to mark a function as a coroutine, allowing it to be paused and resumed without blocking.
What is the difference between List and MutableList in Kotlin?
The list is an immutable collection type in Kotlin, while MutableList is a collection type that supports adding and removing items.
How do you make a class Parcelable in Kotlin?
In Kotlin, a class can be made Parcelable by implementing the Parcelable interface, often used for passing complex data between activities in Android.
What programming paradigms does Kotlin support?
Kotlin supports both Procedural Programming and Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). This flexibility allows developers to choose the paradigm that best suits their project, leveraging Kotlin’s versatility in different programming approaches.
What extension methods does Kotlin provide for java.io.File?
Kotlin enriches java.io.File with several extension methods such as bufferedReader() for reading file contents into a BufferedReader, readBytes() to read file contents into a ByteArray, readText() for reading contents into a String, forEachLine() to read a file line by line, and readLines() for reading lines into a List. These methods enhance file operations, making them more Kotlin-idiomatic.
How are null exceptions handled in Kotlin?
Kotlin handles null exceptions using the Elvis Operator, which provides a concise and safe way to deal with nullable types. This operator, alongside Kotlin’s Null Safety feature, significantly reduces the chances of a NullPointerException, enhancing the robustness of Kotlin applications.
What features are in Kotlin but not in Java?
Kotlin offers several features absent in Java, including Null Safety to prevent NullPointerExceptions, Operator Overloading for extending the meaning of traditional operators, Coroutines for asynchronous programming, Range expressions for easy range handling, Smart casts to automatically cast types, and Companion Objects as an alternative to Java’s static methods.
What is the use of a data class in Kotlin?
Data classes in Kotlin are primarily used to encapsulate data. They automatically provide functionality like equals(), hashCode(), and toString(), which is especially useful when dealing with classes that primarily hold data and do not require additional functionalities or complex business logic.
Can Java code be migrated to Kotlin?
Java code can be seamlessly migrated to Kotlin using the JetBrains IDEA, which provides an inbuilt tool for this purpose. This feature aids developers in transitioning existing Java projects to Kotlin, leveraging Kotlin’s modern features while maintaining the existing code base.
Does Kotlin support macros?
Kotlin does not support macros. The developers of Kotlin found it challenging to include macros in the language, prioritizing other features and language design principles that align more closely with Kotlin’s overall philosophy.
What is the default behavior of Kotlin classes?
In Kotlin, all classes are final by default. This design decision supports multiple inheritances in a more efficient manner, as open (non-final) classes are more resource-intensive than final classes. It aligns with Kotlin’s approach to promoting composition over inheritance.
Does Kotlin support primitive data types?
Unlike Java, Kotlin does not support traditional primitive data types. Instead, it handles basic types such as Int, Double, and Char as objects, which provides a more uniform and consistent experience across the language while avoiding the complexities of Java’s primitive types.
What is the Ranges operator in Kotlin?
The Ranges operator in Kotlin, symbolized by .., facilitates iterating through a sequence of values. For instance, for (i in 1..15) iterates from 1 to 15. This operator simplifies the creation and management of ranges, making for more readable and concise code.
Does Kotlin offer additional functionality for standard Java classes?
Kotlin is fully compatible with the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), allowing it to run alongside standard Java code. This compatibility extends to providing additional functionalities for standard Java classes, enabling developers to use Kotlin to enhance or complement existing Java applications.
How do you declare a volatile variable in Kotlin?
In Kotlin, a volatile variable can be declared using the @Volatile annotation, followed by the variable declaration, such as @Volatile var x: Long? = null. This ensures that writes to this variable are immediately made visible to other threads, a crucial aspect for concurrent programming.
What is the use of abstraction in Kotlin?
Abstraction in Kotlin is a core concept of Object-Oriented Programming used to define a class that cannot be instantiated on its own and often includes abstract methods. It allows you to create a blueprint for other classes, providing a way to enforce certain functionalities in derived classes while leaving the specifics of implementation open.
How to compare two strings in Kotlin?
In Kotlin, strings can be compared using the “==” operator for structural equality or the compareTo() function for customizable comparisons. The compareTo() function allows additional