# Python Operators

Python, a versatile and widely-used programming language, offers a range of operators that are essential for performing various operations. This comprehensive guide delves into the different types of Python operators, providing examples to enhance your understanding. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced coder, this guide will deepen your grasp of Python’s capabilities.

## Python Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc.

Addition (+): Adds two operands. E.g., x + y.
Subtraction (-): Subtracts the right operand from the left. E.g., x – y.
Multiplication (*): Multiplies two operands. E.g., x * y.
Division (/): Divides the left operand by the right. E.g., x / y.
Modulus (%): Returns the remainder when the left operand is divided by the right. E.g., x % y.
Exponentiation (**): Raises the left operand to the power of the right. E.g., x ** y.
Floor Division (//): Performs floor division. E.g., x // y.

Example:

``````x = 10
y = 3
print(x + y) # Output: 13
print(x * y) # Output: 30
print(x ** y) # Output: 1000``````

## Python Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.

Assignment (=): Assigns a value to a variable. E.g., x = 5.
Add and Assign (+=): Adds the right operand to the left operand and assigns the result. E.g., x += 3.
Subtract and Assign (-=): Subtracts the right operand from the left operand and assigns the result. E.g., x -= 3.

Example:

``````x = 10
x += 5
print(x) # Output: 15
x *= 3
print(x) # Output: 45``````

## Python Comparison Operators

Comparison operators are used to compare two values.

Equal to (==): Checks if two operands are equal. E.g., x == y.
Not Equal (!=): Checks if two operands are not equal. E.g., x != y.
Greater Than (>): Checks if the left operand is greater than the right. E.g., x > y.

Example:

``````x = 10
y = 20
print(x == y) # Output: False
print(x < y) # Output: True``````

## Python Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

And (and): Returns True if both statements are true. E.g., x < 5 and x < 10.
Or (or): Returns True if one of the statements is true. E.g., x < 5 or x < 4.
Not (not): Reverses the result, returns False if the result is true. E.g., not(x < 5 and x < 10).

Example:

``````x = 5
print(x > 3 and x < 10) # Output: True``````

## Python Identity Operators

Identity operators compare the memory locations of two objects.

Is (is): Returns True if both variables are the same object. E.g., x is y.
Is not (is not): Returns True if both variables are not the same object. E.g., x is not y.

Example:

``````x = ["apple", "banana"]
y = ["apple", "banana"]
z = x
print(x is z) # Output: True
print(x is y) # Output: False
print(x == y) # Output: True``````

## Python Membership Operators

Membership operators test if a sequence is presented in an object.

In (in): Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is present in the object. E.g., x in y.
Not in (not in): Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is not present in the object. E.g., x not in y.

Example:

``````x = "Hello world"
print("H" in x) # Output: True``````

## Python Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators act on bits and perform bit-by-bit operations.

AND (&): Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1.
OR (|): Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1.
XOR (^): Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1.
NOT (~): Inverts all the bits.
Left Shift (<<): Shifts the bits of the first operand to the left. Right Shift (>>): Shifts the bits of the first operand to the right.

Example:

``````a = 60 # 60 = 0011 1100
b = 13 # 13 = 0000 1101
c = a & b # 12 = 0000 1100
print(c) # Output: 12``````

Understanding operator precedence is crucial for writing clear and correct Python code. Always use parentheses to ensure the intended order of operations.